Geography

Tsunami


Tsunamis or tsunami are gigantic waves that have a large volume of energy that occur in the oceans.

These waves are caused by the movement of tectonic plates located below the oceans. The denser oceanic plates slide under the less dense continental plates in a process that is called subduction.

These maritime earthquakes, also known as tidal waves, displace large amounts of water, forming one or more waves (tsunamis) that can hit the shores of the oceans, causing disasters.

The strength of a tsunami occurs because of its amplitude and speed. As the wave approaches land, its height increases and its speed decreases.

Tsunamis can reach waves up to 30 meters high, with strong destructive power. These large waves are the result of the action of gravity on the movement of the water body.

Other factors that can trigger a tsunami are underwater landslides. Like volcanic eruptions, they occur as large volumes of sediment and rock move and redistribute at the bottom of the sea, increasing the volume of water.

Tsunamis left in history

DATE

MAGNITUDE

HIGH MAXIMUM

DEAD

PLACE

02/07/1992

7.2

10 M

170

NICARAGUA

12/12/1992

7,5

26 M

1.000

FLORES ISLAND / INDONESIA

12/07/1993

7,6

30 M

200

HOKAIDO / JAPAN

02/06/1994

7,2

14 M

220

JAVA / INDONESIA

04/10/1994

8,1

11M

11

CURILY ISLANDS

14/11/1994

7,1

7M

70

MINDORO

21/02/1996

7,5

5 M

12

PERU

17/07/1998

7,0

15 M

2.000

NEW GUINEA

26/12/2004

9,0

50 M

220.000

INDIAN OCEAN

See the chart showing how a tsunami forms